Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are important hormones involved in anabolism, and their physiological roles are critical for developmental processes. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 hormonal axis is tightly regulated by the neuroendocrine system, including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone. - ghrelin (ghrelin). Previous studies have shown that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine can participate in the regulation of growth hormone secretion, but its stimulation of growth hormone is mainly played in adults.
But it is not clear whether it will play a role in development.
Acetylcholine and some other hormones and receptors are expressed before the individual is born, and pituitary growth hormone cells are able to respond to the regulation of GHRH, SRIF and ghrelin. In a recent study published in the international academic journal Endocrinology, researchers from France hypothesized that acetylcholine promotes regulation of the major components of the pituitary growth hormone axis during development.
In this study, the researchers found that endogenous acetylcholine levels determine GH and IGF-1 levels in the circulatory system during the embryonic and postnatal stages. In particular, there is a correlation between the level of GH in the serum and the acetylcholine content in the brain. Acetylcholine also regulates levels of GHRH and SRIF in the hypothalamus and levels of ghrelin in the stomach and affects the levels of these hormones in the circulatory system.
This study found that acetylcholine regulates the pituitary growth hormone axis during development, providing information for a more comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network of neuroendocrine hormones.