Genetic engineering medicine is the product of gene engineering applied to the development of medicine, and is the result of the rapid development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology. The basic principle of gene engineering technology applied to the development of peptide medicine is to isolate the corresponding genes in the body that control the synthesis of proteins or active peptides that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes, and recombine them in vitro before expressing them in suitable hosts.
In 1977, the United States first applied genetic engineering technology to produce human growth hormone, so far there have been a large number of genetic engineering drugs, some are under study, some have been used in clinical and mass production. The production of human active peptides (such as hormones, lymph factors, neuropeptides, enzyme coagulation factors, regulatory proteases, etc.) is generally derived from mammals (rats, monkeys), which is difficult, high cost, low yield, side effects, but the application of genetic engineering technology can greatly improve this condition. At present, there are about 60 kinds of genetically engineered active peptide drugs, which have been commoditized mainly genetically engineered interferons. Its production principle is: the use of DNA recombination technology, the human alpha, beta, interferon gene and a certain quality grain weight into hybrid plasmids, the transformation of E. coli, in the bacterial or phage promoter under the control of interferon. Genetically engineered interferons are not sugary molecules, but have a variety of biological activities, as do natural interferons. In addition, the expression of leukocyte interleukin lymphatic toxin, tumor necrosis factor, human insulin, etc. in E. coli through recombinant DNA has been successful, and some clinical trials have begun.